By M.D. Fulton Roberts
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The first of them, the P group, can be disposed of briefly. P was discovered in 1927, and, after the discovery in 1951 of the Jay system (short symbol Tja), it proved that they were related. It seems that the system is analagous to the ABO system and, by discarding the Tj notation, the P notation may be modelled on the ABO group as follows. Those who have no P antigen, who may be referred to as pp, are analagous to Group O and have the naturallyoccurring antibodies anti-P and anti-P! in their serum (just as Group 0 persons have anti-A and anti-A-,^ in the serum).
The most notable feature about the Lewis group is a property t h a t has not been found in any other human blood group, but is known in the J group in cattle and the R group in sheep. This is t h a t the red cells are not furnished with the antigen directly but they absorb it from the plasma. This can also be accomplished in vitro ; cells lacking Le a will become Le a positive after exposure to plasma containing Le a ; and the same can be shown for Le 6 . Newborn infants lack the Lewis antigens at birth, but a few weeks later the antigens appear in the plasma and are absorbed on the cells.
The antiglobulin test (or Coombs test) is a certain means of diagnosis of hsemolytic disease of all forms except t h a t due to anti-A or anti-B. I n all major respects other t h a n those mentioned the disease is comparable, whether provoked by anti-D or anti-A or anti-B. INCOMPATIBLE TRANSFUSION The existence of the natural forms of anti-A and anti-B imposes a very strict practice upon blood transfusion if incompatibility and its consequences are to be avoided. I t is most important to ensure t h a t no red cells enter the circulation of a patient who carries an antibody against these cells.
An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts