By George Blyn

In a constructing economic climate, agriculture mustn't ever purely offer for a transforming into population, but additionally produce a surplus for funding. For an historical, custom-domi­nated land like India, how does agriculture try to meet those calls for? during this booklet, the commercial heritage of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a learn of output, acreage, and yield in step with acre for the eighteen plants that represent such a lot of India's agriculture.

The nature of switch for every of those eighteen vegetation, and for the foodgrain, non­foodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as an entire, in addition to for shorter sessions, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and exchange information are mixed to figure out developments within the availability of vegetation. those tendencies are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point adjustments in India's welfare. to give an explanation for the traits in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to adjustments m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural know-how, and actual environment.

An vast therapy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling sufficient crop information and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables excited by the advanced method through which agricultural info was once compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the alterations in boundary traces and the resultant adjustments in files, the impression of weather and overseas markets, in addition to the bigger styles of background and nature, battle and catastrophe.

The entire Appendix contains, between different resource fabrics, the once a year facts for person vegetation and crop aggregates and their pattern charges for person many years. The textual content comprises a variety of tables, charts, and maps.

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Extra info for Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity

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S. M. V. Unakar, "Correlation between weather and crops with special reference to Punjab wheat," 1929. • P. Thomas and N. Sundarama Sastl'}'l Indian Agricultural Statistics (Madras: Oxford University Press, 1939), pp. 28-30 discuss the com­ plexity of factors affecting yield per acre and give additional references. e. grains, oilseeds, which usually meant that the average yields per acre of the two crops would not be much differenc %ough most crops were annuals, this element in similarity was �Iso considered; tea, for instance, is a perennial, and the amount harvested· per acre depended mostly on the market; in contrast to annual crops which are usually completely har­ vested.

As believed by Dr. V. Panse, cited in Mukerji, op. cit:, p. 64. NATURE OF CROP DATA 55 would give the measured trend a downward bias. : century period, an error distribution of this type appears quite unlikely. In a given ten year period, this type of bias in trend could be large, but in an average of ten such short periods the effect can be expected to be much reduced. A realistic variant of the case where errors do not cancel over time is the possibility that over the years there was a gradual reduction in the percentage of error.

The indirect effect of the adjust­ ments and reductions in trend is- also spread into trend measurements for groups of decades and the whole period by the process of averaging the decade trends. 2 Discontinuities in yield per acre trends. 1, yields per acre for all years up to the year of change were raised (or lowered) by the percentage required to make the straight-line trend yield per acre, of that year equal to the yield per acre of straight-line trend in the followJ ing period extended back one year.

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Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity by George Blyn

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