By J. Fricke (auth.), Professor Dr. Jochen Fricke (eds.)
This ebook includes the papers awarded on the "First overseas Sympo st sium on Aerogels (1 ISA)", held in September 1985 at. the college of Wiirzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany. It was once the 1st meet.ing of this sort, wit.h contributors from numerous ecu count.ries, the us of the United States, Canada, South the US, and Africa. The assembly was once interdisciplinary, with many of the members being physicists, chemists or fabric scientists ei ther from universities or from commercial learn institutes. permit me try and shed a few mild upon the category of gear the symposium was once approximately: Aerogels are tremendous porous high-tech fabrics, consisting ei ther of silica, alumina, zirconia, stannic or tungsten oxide or combos of those oxides. as a result of their excessive porosity (up t.o 99%!) and t.heir huge internal floor, aerogels function specially energetic catalysts or as catalytic subst.rates, as adsorbents, fillers, reinforcement brokers, pigments and gellifying brokers. Silica aerogels as translucent or obvious superinsulating fillers in window structures may support to significantly lessen thermal losses in home windows and to enhance the power stability in passive sunlight structures. Aerogels even have fas cinating acoustic houses - the sound speed might be as little as a hundred m/s! The creation of aerogels starts off with the managed conversion of a sol right into a gel: the expansion of clusters or polymer chains from a chemical resolution, the cross-linking of those basic entities and the formation of a coherent community - nonetheless embedded in a liquid.
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Additional info for Aerogels: Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Würzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany September 23–25, 1985
The supported (on Si0 2 or A1203) conventional NiO catalyst (xerogel) is known as a catalyst for a totaT oxidation of olefins, like also unsupported NiO. NiO on A1203 aerogels are however almost 100 % selective towards a partial oxidation of 01ef1ns. Concerning now the paraffins,the known examples of the partial oxidation catalysts are very scarce, the total oxidation being the rule. Now, the binary NiO/A1 203 aerogel is selective towards the partial oxidation of n-propane (50 %) and of isobutane (75 %) into acetone.
Reaction conditions, of Fe304 by the interaction of the initial Fe203 with the high surface-area aerogel (S10 2 or A1 203 ) support. T. reaction, of a qraphitic carbon and of iron carbides. This is no longer observed on oxidized iron aerogel cata1 sts. Typically, the surface area of Fe203/Si02 aerogel is of the order of 800 m /g and its productivity is of the order of 1 kg of paraffins per 1 kg of catalyst per hour. By comparison,the conventional reduced iron cata- 2 28 lyst has a surface area of 10 m2/g and exhibits a productivity of 3 g of paraffins per 1 kg of catalyst per hour, for the same conditions of the reaction.
Recently, its application as a low refractive index, transparent material, in Cherenkov counters, has generated significant interest [3-6]. Its transparency, excellent thermal resistance, and selectable refractive index make it attractive for many other applications [7-10]. Our interest lies in its development as an insulating glazing material for high performance insulating windows. However, for the commercial manufacture of aerogels, the traditional production process requires improvement. There are two areas where these improvements are critical: 1) a replacement of the toxic starting material, Si(OCH3)4 by the cheaper and relatively non-toxic Si(OC 2H 5 )4; and 2) the development of a supercritical drying method to eliminate the need to cycle high-pressure equipment through large temperature changes.
Aerogels: Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Würzburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany September 23–25, 1985 by J. Fricke (auth.), Professor Dr. Jochen Fricke (eds.)