By Gwyn Morgan

ISBN-10: 0195315898

ISBN-13: 9780195315899

The 12 months of 4 Emperors, so the traditional resources guarantee us, used to be the most chaotic, violent and scary sessions in all Roman background: a time of assassinations and civil wars, of armies so uncontrolled they had no qualms approximately occupying the town of Rome, and of bold males who seized energy simply to lose it, one after another.
In sixty nine advert, Gwyn Morgan deals a clean examine this era, in accordance with concerns to which inadequate recognition has been paid some time past. First, that we have to resolve instead of cherry-pick among the conflicting debts of Tacitus, Plutarch and Suetonius, our 3 major assets of knowledge. And moment, that the function of the armies, as certain from that in their commanders, has too usually been exaggerated. the result's a remarkably exact and insightful narrative background, full of colourful pictures of the prime contributors and new insights into the character of the Roman army Morgan levels from the suicide of Nero in June sixty eight to the triumph of Vespasian in December sixty nine. In among, 3 different emperors carry energy. We meet Galba, outdated, tightfisted and conservative, who used to be declared emperor in June sixty eight and assassinated in January sixty nine. Otho, as soon as Nero's boon better half, who used to be accountable for murdering Galba, seized energy in a coup in Rome in January sixty nine and, to everybody's shock, dedicated suicide 3 months later in a useless try to finish the civil wars. Vitellius, as indolent as he was once extravagant, who was once recommend by way of bold lieutenants, well-known by way of the senate in Rome after they heard of Otho's loss of life in April, and scale back via Vespasian's partisans within the final days of December. after which there's Vespasian, the candidate who appeared least more likely to prevail, yet (according to Tacitus) used to be nonetheless the 1st to be stronger by means of turning into emperor.
A strikingly brilliant account of old Rome, sixty nine advert is an unique and compelling account of 1 of the easiest identified yet maybe least understood sessions in all Roman background.

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Salzsaure kann in gleicher Weise wie Schwefelsaure mit Sodalosung titrirt werden. 65 Proc. HCl. Der Procentgehalt derselben kann auch mit Hilfe folgender Tabelle aus dem spec. Gew. bestimmt werden. Spec. Gew'l- Beaume- I Frocent bei 15° C. 34 I Spec. Gew··-I-Bea~me-I Frocent bei 15° C. 12 Die Gegenwart von Eisen macht sich durch eine gelbe Farbe der Saure bemerkbar und kann durch die gewohnlichen Reagentien wie in del' Schwefelsaure nachgewiesen werden. Oxalsaure solI rein weiss und in Wasser vollstandig lOslich sein.

Del' Vergleich soll moglichst mehrlllais Die Untel'sllchung des Wassel's. 23 ausgefUhrt werden; man fUgt alsdann von der Lasung des Riiekstandes 1 eem mehr als zuvor hinzn und vergleieht wieder. Dividirt man das Volumen del' verbl'auchten Normal-EisenlOsung durch das Volnmen des zugesetzten Wassel's (urspriingliches Volumen), so erhlilt man die Theile Eisen, welche in 100000 Th. Wasser enthalten sind. 496 g reinen, krystallisirten Eisenvitriol in einer Kochflasche in wenig Salpetersliure auflast und alsdann erhitzt, bis keine rothen Dampfe mehr entweichen; man fiillt diese Lasung mit destill, Wasser genau auf 1 I auf nnd verdiinnt diese VOl' dem Gebrauche im Verhaltniss 1: 10.

DIe Harte wird meist in "Graden" ansgedritckt. Die dentsehen Grade geben die Theile CaO nnd die franzosisehen Grade die Theile CaCOs in 100 000 Th. :t1. Die Untel'suchung des ·Wassers. 21 die "grains" CaC0 3 pro Gallone (Theile CaCO g in 70000 Th. Wasser) anzeigen. 1) Permanente (bleibende) Harte (nach HERNER'S Methode). Man bringt 20 ccm N/10-Sodalosung mit 100 ccm des Wassers (bei sehr weichen Wassern mit 200 cm) zusammen und verdampft alsdann das Ganze in einer Platin- odeI' Porzellanschale zur Trockne.

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69 AD: The Year of Four Emperors by Gwyn Morgan

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